em dash vs en dash

When do I use an en dash vs an em dash? It’s a tricky question and appears to be as related to fashion as to strict rules of grammar.

It appears, in recent times, the em dash (—) has fallen out of favour in the UK, and is primarily used only in dialogue. It is not surrounded by spaces.


Em dash:

‘It is with shame that I am forced to admit the truth—that I was mis-using the em dash all along.’

En dash:

Molly was forced to admit the truth – that she had been mis-using the em dash all along.

Both examples represent a break in the sentence, so capitalising the following word is not correct.

Occasionally writers use em dashes to denote dialogue:

—I was mis-using the em dash all along.

Getting Real About Out of Home

Even the shortest journey is made up of a number of short cognitive hops. There are points along every road where the traveller unconsciously clocks a landmark and is reassured that they’re still on the right path. 

On a quiet country road, in the foothills of the Serrania de Ronda, on the outskirts of the small Sevillian town of El Saucejo, you will find a mini-roundabout known locally as the Roundabout of the Olives. This poorly signposted, and incongruous, traffic calming measure features a thirty-foot wide esparto weave basket overflowing with dozens of gigantic, shiny, black, Gordal olives; a fruit traditionally associated with that part of Spain. In many ways, this bizarre installation can offer us some insight into the future of OOH.

Like any good OOH location campaign, the Roundabout of the Olives succeeds on a number of levels. It is a landmark, a visual touchstone on a long dusty road with very few distractions. Truck drivers much surely feel a sense of gratitude as the roundabout shimmers out of the heat haze, on the road ahead, for in that moment, a transaction occurs—the location is transformed into a place. A humble location, with a low cognitive or emotional resonance, is transmuted into a colourful and vibrant landmark which reminds the traveller that there is more to life than the dusty highway. It also allows the town, the brand, to start a conversation with the traveller, the customer. 

Behold! A basket of olives. Are you hungry? Here is a place to call home. Why not stop in our beautiful town and return to a simpler time and maybe, while you’re here, enjoy something to eat. Welcome to El Saucejo!

Cultural geographers, anthropologists, sociologists and urban planners have long known that certain places hold a special meaning to particular people. Locations that are said to have a “sense of place” have a strong identity that is deeply felt by inhabitants and visitors. 

In childhood we develop a special bond with our environment; it forms part of our identity and, as adults, we tend to consider new places in relation to this ‘primal landscape’.  While our sense of place develops over time and through repetition, the process can also be undermined by disruptions in routines or abrupt changes in environment; when considered in the context of OOH, this offers an interesting opportunity for brands to engage with customers on a much deeper level. Advertisers who are able to empower a sense of place in target demographics may also engender a deeper connection with a brand.

OOH is all about place, and never was this more noticeable than in the recent pandemic. When DOOH.COM launched their successful #MyHeroes campaign, as a celebration of key workers during the early stages of lockdown, they specifically targeted roadside screens and bus shelters servicing hospitals and health centres. While the connection seemed quite natural at the time, we were surprised by the outpouring of affection on social media, not only for key workers but also the Media Owners, who generously donated their space and time to the campaign. 

OOH screens are more than just screens at a fixed location, they are a part of a deeper cognitive landscape, and whether we know it or not, those screens, we pass every day of our lives, become a part of our world—our reality.  

Many of the early innovators within AR immediately recognised the importance of place, and routinely hung virtual props in real-world spaces; by attaching Geocaches or Pokemon Go stops to physical landmarks and real-world locations they could lend their ’fake’ worlds a sense of authenticity.  

The rise of augmented reality and Facebook’s staggering investment in the meta-verse embedded internet may appear to be at odds with traditional OOH but these innovations can only challenge our sense of the virtual world; OOH, in contrast, is based entirely in reality. When compared to other advertising mediums, there is less of an abstraction between an OOH advertisement and the viewer. Unlike the internet, television, or print, OOH advertising, by nature, is out and about in the real world, alongside us, as we go about our physical lives. OOH exists on the same physical plane as ourselves and as a result, our relationship with it is deeper.

OOH emerged from the pandemic and ven though high profile city-centre screens saw a decline in impressions during the lockdown, suburban and roadside locations appeared to enjoy a significant upturn in location-aware bookings. Perhaps brands are beginning to realise the benefits of empowering a sense of place and binding themselves to locations in emotionally engaging ways. 

DOOH.COM has been helping brands enable location call-outs in their OOH creative for many years but during the pandemic, we began to start thinking about locations in terms of how they might empower emotional engagement as places. 

Distributing creative across many thousands of screens, over a wide geographic area, presents some technical challenges. A single video file weighing only a few megabytes can equate to many hundreds of gigabytes of data circulating around a network. As consumers demand higher bandwidth at lower and lower data tariffs, more and more data will become available to OOH advertisers and as a result, over the coming years, without the physical constraints of limited bandwidth, we will begin to see the emergence of hyperlocal content that adapts to specific locations (and in turn places), with increasingly disruptive and emotive content that engage audiences like never before.

The shift towards location-targeted OOH campaigns has been happening quietly behind the scenes for years; it started with tentative copy lines at low point sizes but has gradually grown in boldness-of-execution as brand confidence increased. 

More recently DOOH.COM have been working with elegantly layered motion and artwork files, which beautifully combine location with creativity, in order to move beyond the staple ‘insert location here’ design brief and put high-fidelity location callouts front-and-centre across many hundreds of locations throughout the duration of a campaign.

Inevitably, the wider the distribution footprint of an OOH campaign, the harder it is to maintain consistency over such large geographical areas. In order to maintain campaign fidelity at scale, technical innovation will play a vital role in production, delivery, as well as reporting. As our understanding of how our sense of place plays to the unique strengths of OOH, we must be ready to augment location campaign creative messaging in ever smarter and more pertinent ways.

With the inevitable rise of virtual and augmented meta-verses, the ties that bind us to reality will become more and more important. Our sense of self, place and our relationship to the world around us has never been more important. 

If the pandemic taught us anything, OOH is an intrinsic part of our physical landscape; while that landscape may soon be pock-marked with digitally augmented advertising real-estate, I can confirm that, or the time being at least, the Roundabout of the Olives, halfway between Seville and Malaga, in southern Spain, does not have a Pokestop! Not yet anyway.

Test Readers

The Spooky Art by Norman Mailer

The great American author Norman Mailer confessed, in his excellent book on writing: The Spooky Art, that he hated reading his stuff to his college writing group. His fellow students never seemed to react the way he wanted, or expected. Which left him disspirited and full of self-doubt; even Pulitzer prize winners have to build up their confidence. It was only when he realised that readers naturally bring themselves to what they read that Mailer began to relax.

The diversity of opinion in a group of test readers can be enormously useful. It allows you to better understand what’s working and what’s not. It also throws up serendipitous discoveries which can nudge your writing in new and surprising directions.

Make no mistake. Most people will hate what you write, otherwise every novelist would sell billions of copies of everything they publish. Authors don’t sell billions, they sell thousands or millions (if they’re very lucky) the bestselling novelist’s audience represents a tiny percentage of the population. But a tiny percentage is enough.

Write for the select few who will love what you do, not for the billions; they are as fictitious as your half-formed characters.

Adobe ditch FLV support in CC 2014

I’m currently going through the process of updating my Creative Cloud applications to CC 2014. I wasn’t aware that the release was even due until I received an email from Red Giant telling me that the latest update of their popular suite of After Effects plugins was fully compatible with the latest release of Adobe CC 2014 announced TODAY. Odd that. Given that I have a Creative Cloud panel, winking away in my task bar throughout the working day, Adobe appear reluctant to use it to actually promote their own products.

So I check out my CC panel and sure enough there’s a host of new software packages to update. First thing I thought I’d do was to check out After Effects’ release notes – I click the “What’s New” link under the After Effects CC 2014 icon in my Creative Cloud Panel and fire up a webpage. Hmmm. Not much to see so far. So I dig a little deeper and click “See full release notes”. At the bottom of a list of sections similar to what I’d just read I hit a tantalisingly tiny link titled “show all” and lo, a few more sections drop down, the last of which is called “Miscellaneous updates” – I can’t resist. Click! There, tucked away at the bottom, I read the following:

• You cannot export to the following formats in the 2014 version of After Effects CC. However, you can still import these file formats into After Effects.

Now that was news! No FLV export from After Effects. Adobe are killing off FLV. Surely not. They must be passing that over to Adobe Media Encoder CC 2014. So I head back to my task bar and rummage around for the necessary link in my CC panel. I arrive at a page listing various features and notice a refreshingly optimistic bullet point.

• Broad format support

Sounds good, but it didn’t have any further information. I noticed in the “Learn Media Encoder” panel a blue button labelled “LEARN NOW”. Half expecting a broken link, I chanced my arm and hit my mouse button. I arrived at fresh page, headed by a thumbnail and the line: “New features summary (2014)” CLICK! I arrived at a page containing the following:

Removal of FLV and F4V export formats

Starting with the June 2014 release, Adobe Media Encoder will not include Flash export capabilities, and thus you will not be able to export projects to FLV or F4V formats.

You can use previous versions of Adobe Media Encoder if you want to export to FLV and F4V formats.

You can however still import FLV and F4V files into Adobe Media Encoder.

Well, that settles it. Adobe are killing off the FLV, they’ve buried it away in the small print, but the world’s most ubiquitous video format is no more. At least as far as Adobe are concerned.

The meaning of this? Search me! Admittedly, Flash is dead on the desktop, but it’s very much alive off-line. Digital signage, touchscreen kiosks, even app development using Adobe Air. It’s not unusual especially in quite locked down or content managed situations to be asked to embed small videos on Flash’s timeline. Not anymore though. Only FLVs can be embedded on the timeline.

I’m particularly lamenting the demise of the embedded cue point. Although other formats may offer superior compression, they don’t support cue points!

I guess there are a million online utilities and applications available to help me convert video to FLV if I really need to. YouTube for instance, but it does beggar belief that Adobe should stop supporting such a widely used format without even a hint of a press release. Unless…

Since Adobe switched to the cloud as a means of distributing products, an interesting thing has happened. Software pirates can’t be arsed updating their cracks and warez along with Adobe’s regular releases. Effectively making it very difficult for people to maintain the latest version of software illegally. There have been a couple of really significant features released recently that weren’t saved for a full version release but were instead pushed out through an automatic Creative Cloud update. For example:
Illustrator – Rounded corner editing – very cool feature.
Edge Animate – JS code embedding, Audio support
Flash – Mobile Device Packaging

Scanning through the various feature updates released across the platform today, either Adobe are out of ideas or are releasing as few new features as possible with full version releases of software, in an attempt to foil pirates and more regularly push exciting new product features directly to their customers via the CC panel.

Adobe certainly have a history of dropping features only to re-instate them further down the line. Remember animated gif support being dropped from Photoshop? Outrageous! What about Flash’s Motion Tween Panel and Projector export, both dropped recently – both reinstated in CC 2014.

Either way, I can’t help but feel annoyed. I remember looking forward to software releases. Nowadays I dread them, I could lose as much as I gain.

Talk of the Devil! A little red notification panel just winked up in the top right corner of my monitor. Apparently I have eight software updates to make in order to get my Adobe products up-to-date. Must dash!

Looking white in the face

“Fear of the White Page”
(Oil on canvas)
by Erik Pevernagie

I went to boarding school between the age of eleven and thirteen. Although essentially a comprehensive school with a tagged-on boarding house in the car park, it held onto many of the old grammar school traditions, including a culture in which prefects would mete out time-consuming punishments for minor misdemeanours. For example: for drawing comics when I should have been doing homework, I was instructed to describe in not less than 1,000 words: “WHITE“, thus preventing me from finishing either my comic or my homework. It is with some surprise that I find myself, half a lifetime later, sitting down to write the 2013 version. The title may be a little different, but it is essentially the same subject. “WHITE“, or to be more specific, the fear of it.

Do you ever feel afraid of the white page, the blank canvas or the empty Photoshop™ document? A lot of people do. There’s even a word for it: vacansopapurosophobia. It’s a common complaint among creatives, similar to writers’ block. It is the inability to get the ball rolling, a crippling lack of confidence at the outset of a project or a sense that anything you try, will fail. Where do I start? How do I start? Should I bother starting at all?

All of us struggle with a sense of worth. Is it the fear of failure that makes us feel uneasy or, as Franklin D Roosevelt said, fear itself? Perhaps those who manifest these feelings into a pathological fear of the colour white may be extreme cases, but ultimately their fear is no more irrational than the fear of failure.

The psychologist Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” proposed that human desire can be divided into a hierarchy of needs. Maslow argued that once we have achieved the baser needs and desires of life, we strive to achieve a state of self-actualisation; the psychical manifestation of all our potential. Effectively the metamorphosis from what is possible, to what is.

Maslow placed “self-actualisation” at the pinnacle of his pyramid. His critics point out that the penniless painter, slapping paint onto canvas, may be pre-occupied with self-actualisation above all else. The tortured artist may forgo food and drink to buy the paint he needs or more blank canvases.

“Just slap anything on when you see a blank canvas staring you in the face like some imbecile. You don’t know how paralyzing that is, that stare of a blank canvas, which says to the painter, ‘You can’t do a thing’. The canvas has an idiotic stare and mesmerizes some painters so much that they turn into idiots themselves.”
Vincent Van Gogh

Van Gogh’s coping strategy appears to have been immediate eradication of the offending blank canvas. Anyone who has watched children play will recognise this technique. The first thing a child does when settling down to play is to empty their toy box all over the floor.

The child revels in choice. They instinctively recognise the importance of inspirational resources. A pile of toys is like a pile of ideas. Unrelated and disparate thoughts, building blocks to be assembled into a meaningful pattern. They do not start with nothing, they organise the chaos.

“The blankness of a new page never fails to intrigue and terrify me. Sometimes, in fact, I think my habit of writing on long yellow sheets comes from an atavistic fear of the writer’s stereotypic “blank white page.” At least when I begin writing, my page isn’t utterly blank; at least it has a wash of color on it, even if the absence of words must finally be faced on a yellow sheet as truly as on a blank white one. Well, we all have our own ways of whistling in the dark.”
Memoirist Patricia Hampl, in an essay called “Memory and Imagination.”

Although many artists and writers combat this fear of the blank page by spoiling or filling the page as quickly as possible, there are a considerable number of artists who practice the exact opposite; instead of adding to the canvas, they subtract.

Tintin in Tibet
by Hergés

Hergés, the celebrated creator of Tintin, was plagued by recurring nightmares, filled with whiteness. He consulted a Swiss psychoanalyst, who advised him to give up working on Tintin. Instead, he finished Tintin in Tibet, started the year before. Hergés, actually transformed the white from his nightmares into snow, literally revealing the potential of the fear itself. Converting it into minimalist scenes, of tremendous power, with economy and clarity. We are transported to another world, a world of Hergés’ creation; something that may never have existed if the author had not struggled, and ultimately triumphed, over his fear. Hergés made a choice to continue and in so doing exorcised his phobia forever.

The blank canvas or document is a portal into another world. Potential manifest. The artist, as the creator of this world, must make choices. Every brush stroke, key press or movement makes the world more solid, for better or worse. A single brush stroke in the wrong place can subvert or transform that world. Every choice is a doorway to another reality but beware, for every door that opens an infinite number of alternate doors close.

It is said that Michelangelo stared at a single 18-foot block of marble for four months. When asked what he was doing he calmly answered ‘sto lavorando,‘ (I’m working). Three years later that block of marble was the statue of David. Michelangelo held a belief that a sculpture already exists inside every block of marble. He believed that it was the sculptor’s job to chip away the superfluous, in order to free the idea inside.

Did Michelangelo ever feel afraid during those long months spent gazing at that virgin block of marble? I’m sure he did.

‘A sculptor is chiseling a statue out of a raw stone when he is asked “What are you making? Is it Ganesh? Is it Lakshmi? Is it a man? Is it an elephant?” He replied ”I do not know; there is already a statue inside and I am only removing the extraneous material. It will come out on its own!”’

You could describe the coping strategies of Michelangelo and Hergés as ‘subtractive’. Their creative process sets about revealing the idea by subtracting the extraneous white space.

Alternatively, Van Gogh adopts an ‘additive” approach by slapping on the paint, as carelessly as possible in order to avoid confronting the blank canvas at all.

Whether we choose to embrace or eradicate the white page, we must avoid becoming consumed by it. The blank page is a Mirror of Erised, reflecting idealised versions of our ideas back at ourselves, ultimately transfixing us into inactivity.

Ideas can be blinding and dazzling but they can also consume us. We should view them with caution; as a child peers at an eclipse through a pin-hole in a piece of card.

What will a high speed rail link from Manchester to London do for me?

Yesterday I read, to my bewilderment, that England is to get a high speed rail network. What will that mean to me? Mancunian’s can revel that their journey time to London will be cut by an hour! Well, half an hour because you’ll have to get yourself to Stockport first. How much will the luxury of this extra half hour cost? A mere £33 Billion! Let’s write that in full. £33,000,000,000!

According to the The Independent on Monday 28 January 2013, the tickets will cost us as much as £1,000. Other sources suggest that ministers have ruled out price hikes but given that it currently costs around £441 for a First Class Open Return with Virgin, we can bet that it will be at least 10% more expensive. So let’s recap. For an investment of £33 Billion and a 10-50% increase on ticket prices, we will get a half hour reduction in our journey time.

How long do we have to wait for this boon? What’s that? Twenty years!

As a self employed digital designer who works for clients all over the country, you might expect me to do a great deal of travelling? Actually, about 80% of the work I do is from my office. Mostly, my clients are happy using Skype and Video conferencing technology to manage projects remotely. Thanks to these technologies I can demo projects, make presentations, exchange documents and enjoy instant connectivity with remote colleagues without ever having to leave my chair. We only have to glance at the products emerging from the audio visual technology sectors to realise that these new channels of communication will play a big part in the future of commerce. Huge online gaming communities already exist and what’s more, our children are already engaging with them. As the internet and wireless networks continue to improve and the attitude of the general population towards technology continue to mature, the shape of our companies will evolve too. Why would a business suffer the overhead of a large premises when they could downsize and manage a high percentage of their staff remotely? We accept that the high street will have to evolve quickly to survive, why not business too? In a world where the consumer can scan a barcode with their iPhone and instantly purchase the item at the cheapest possible price, the high street must change. In a world where an HD video conferencing wall, could potentially double the size of a boardroom table and connect you to any member of staff anywhere in the world instantaneously, business will have to adapt too.

Of course physical collaboration will still need to happen, especially in manufacturing, but as technology and video conferencing suites become cheaper and a greater part of our lives is spent within these virtual environments, it will become more and more commonplace to conduct our business online.

Environmentally, as the price of fuel climbs the pressure to work remotely will increase too. As the cost of running cars will make it more expensive to travel, the radius we will be prepared to commute will contract.

If you think I’m beginning to sound like Arthur C. Clarke, can I remind you that twenty years is a long time and that even politicians would point out that investment in bringing high speed broadband to rural communities is part of this reality; although personally I think an improved wireless network infrastructure, would have been an investment in the future.

Maybe I’m just cynical but I continue to note with interest how little IT or computer studies is being mentioned in the current debate raging over the English Baccalaureate Certificates (EBCs) being introduced to replace GSCEs from 2015. Maybe a computer savvy workforce isn’t a good thing? If we all worked from home as self-employed sole-traders, what implications would that have on Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs? It might make it difficult to pay for those high speed trains. You know, the shiny new trains, the ones with nobody on them.

Do you feel like an impostor?

Professionally, 2012 was an important year for me. Although it started slowly, about mid-way through the year, something changed. I became aware, that for the first time in my career as a Digital Designer, I had stopped feeling like a fake and was beginning to feel like I knew what I was talking about. My stuff began to look better, my clients seemed happier with my work, I was smashing deadlines and my normally manic workload actually seemed manageable. Best of all, I was less dissatisfied with my output, and more forgiving of its faults.

Looking back, I can’t put my finger on exactly what changed or what set of events or circumstances precipitated this shift of attitude but I can say for certain that I feel very differently about my career today, than I did a year ago. I no longer feel like an impostor! I may actually be the real deal!

To back this up, throughout the tail end of 2012, I found myself stumbling upon various articles and interviews featuring a diverse range of influential creatives. They all seemed to back me up with similar epiphanies of their own. It seemed like everyone creative (film directors, architects, broadcasters and musicians) had been through the same process I had gone through.

In his documentary, Sketches of Frank Gehry, Sidney Pollack makes an interesting point during an exchange over Gehry’s dinner table. He claimed that for the first few years of his career he felt like he was pretending to be a director. This feeling disappeared gradually until one day he woke up and shrugged “Hey I’m a director.” Gehry agreed enthusiastically, remembering his own lingering feelings of inadequacy.

So, I’m not alone, I thought. What is it that’s changed? Is it experience?

In the documentary The Promise: The Making of Darkness on The Edge of Town, Bruce Springstein draws a distinction between Creative Instinct and Creative Intelligence. The former you heavily rely on when you’re young. “That doesn’t feel right, try something else.” It’s only in later life that the Creative Intelligence allows you to pull the ace out of your sleeve.


This idea of Creative Instinct and Intelligence seemed to be reiterated by the American broadcaster Ira Glass. I heard a podcast in which he played a radio story he recorded after eight years in the business, as an experienced broadcaster. It was rubbish! Barely comprehensible. He then explained that in his opinion every creative person goes through a period in which there is a disconnect between their taste and their ability. Everything they do is short of the mark, and they don’t know why. That’s when most people quit. He believed that the only solution is to do more more. Paid or not. Keep going.

I was flicking through one of my old notebooks, when I re-descovered some of the notes I had made of a talk given by Joe Sparks, the American Flash animator during a Flash Forward conference I attending in Amsterdam in 2003. He casually remarked that the lead time for one of his Devil Doll and Radiskull animations was two weeks! It was as if I’d been given a unique insight into the process. I asked myself, could I have done the same in two weeks? Was he faster than me? It seemed like I had been given a yardstick with which I could measure my own skills. Why had this snippet of quite useless information been so important to me? I had even underlined the “2 weeks”. I rarely underline anything.

I think the final contribution to my enlightenment came thanks to a guest on BBC Radio 4’s Desert Island Discs programme. I didn’t catch their name, but given that they were talking to Kirsty Young, they must have been fairly successful in their chosen field. The guest confessed to sometimes suffering from “Impostor Syndrome”. What? Impostor Syndrome?

Impostor syndrome, sometimes called impostor phenomenon or fraud syndrome, is a psychological phenomenon in which people are unable to internalize their accomplishments. Despite external evidence of their competence, those with the syndrome remain convinced that they are frauds and do not deserve the success they have achieved. Proof of success is dismissed as luck, timing, or as a result of deceiving others into thinking they are more intelligent and competent than they believe themselves to be.

Finally my condition has some legitimacy!

My blog, has always carried the strap-line “A Blagger’s Guide to Multimedia” because that’s how I felt when I first got into the business. I was winging it and flying by the seat of my pants. My self-confidence was far outstripped by my ambition. This ambition was enough to keep the momentum going, if I worked hard enough I didn’t need to worry about my self-confidence. So maybe I’m not a blagger after all. Maybe it’s time to design a new WordPress theme? Although, as I was copying and pasting the block-quote above, I stumbled upon another psychological condition that may prove more difficult to grow out of. The Dunning-Kruger effect.

The Dunning–Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which unskilled individuals suffer from illusory superiority, mistakenly rating their ability much higher than average. This bias is attributed to a metacognitive inability of the unskilled to recognize their mistakes.

Did this new found self-confidence come as a result of noticing these interviews and articles? Did the confidence itself, once acquired, somehow lift a veil that enabled me to recognise their importance? I don’t know. Either way, I don’t feel like an impostor any more and neither should you. If you’ve read this far, I’m sure you are going through a similar journey. Good luck.

We’re a funny bunch aren’t we? You, me, Sidney Pollack, Frank Gehry and the Boss. Take heart we are in good company!

Maya Deren

Today’s obsession will be over in less than 4 hours. “That’s I fad!” I hear you yell. Well, when I tell you that the entire career of experimental film maker Maya Deren is represented by 12 films made between 1943 and 1959 totalling just four hours of screen time you’d understand. I stumbled upon Meshes of the Afternoon (1943), quite by chance and I was blown away, not just by the film but by the on-screen presence of its star and director Maya Deren. A dancer, a poet, celebrated experimental filmmaker and feminist I had to wonder why I’d never heard of her before. Then again after soaking up The Witch’s Cradle (1943), At Land (1944), A Study in Choreography for Camera (1945) and Ritual in Transfigured Time (1946) I suspect we’ve all heard of her, at least through the influence she clearly had on filmmakers and artists such as David Lynch and Kate Bush. It’s sad to think she died in 1961 when she was only 44.

Maya Deren

Coding in your sleep.

Pithy words of wisdom, often appear mundane. So I’m going to be quick. The secret of successful coding is sleep.

I recently found myself in the hazardous situation of having too much work booked at the same time. My post-summer holiday bank balance allowed me to become seduced by the dark side. I counted that twilight world after 1:00AM as a friend. In reality the hours between 1:00 AM and 5:30 AM are cruel and the full of mischief. Time becomes distorted, decisions become unreliable. The walls between illusion and reality become a thin and fragile membrane through which errors of judgment can seep. When coding this can be dangerous. Sometimes it results in the odd harmless typo, here and there; easy enough to correct. Sometimes, it can lead to a full fledged haemorrhage.

It strikes me that our culture doesn’t much like sleep. I spent a few minutes trying to find pro-sleep quotations on Google and yet from the greatest minds and thinkers throughout history, it seems that sleep is rarely given the credit it deserves. Most references appear to offer the opinion that the fool / peasant sleeps while the genius works through the night. I remember hearing a labour politician talking admiringly about Tony Blair’s work ethic, indicating how impressed we should all be in the meagre two hours sleep Tony allowed himself when he was Prime Minister. Is this a good thing? Oh the irony, of John Prescott sleeping like a baby during a health debate at the Labour Party conference in 2005.

We all accept that healthy minds and bodies depend on a good night’s sleep and yet how often we feel compelled to push ourselves beyond comfort into late nights and fatigue.

Whether it be a result of capitalism or some kind of “propaganda without portfolio”, the reality is obvious. We cannot think clearly without sleep. Not only does our productivity and efficiency drop to very low levels as the night wears on but we are often robbed of the following day as well.

I almost lost a good client, not because I couldn’t do the work or deliver it on time, but because I was too knackered to programme properly.

So the next time you find yourself burning the midnight oil remember that a lot more than a deadline may be at stake. One all-nighter can ruin a week and if you are unlucky enough like me to have spent a week from hell vainly trying to repair the damage caused by decisions made during such a session, be warned, you may loose a lot more than sleep if you persist in burning the candle at both ends.